Effects of World War on World
The effects of world war can be long term or short term. However, Soldiers or Army experience war differently than civilians. In past decade, up to two million of people killed/Dead in armed conflicts were small children’s. The widespread trauma caused by these atrocities creates extensive emotional and psychological stress among common people. Effects of war in world also include mass destruction of cities and have long lasting of its effects on a country’s economy. Armed conflict have negative consequences on, infrastructure, public health, and social order.
On the economy
The economy would suffer devastating or huge impacts during and after a war. In 2012, the economic impact of world war and violence was estimated to about 11 % of Gross World Product (GWP) i.e US$ 9.46 trillion. Every activities of a community or country doing violence results in property damaged may also causing damages to the economy of countries involved.
In some rare cases, The War has stimulated a nation’s economy (World War II is often credited with bringing America out of the Great Depression). According to the World Bank the event that conflicts subside in the country, and in the event that there is a transition to democracy the following will result in an increase economic growth by encouraging investment of the country and its people, schooling, economic restructuring, public-good provision, and reducing social unrest.
Conflict very rarely has positive effects on an nations economy. The World Bank estimates that more than 6,30,000 Syrian refugees have cost Jordan above US$ 2.5 billion a year. We know that one of the most benefits for the economy is higher GDP growth. In previous cases, war losses were serves only to damage the economy of the countries involved. For example, Russia’s involvement in World War I had greatly contributed to the starting of Russian Revolution in 1917.
Destruction of infrastructure
Destruction of infrastructure can create a catastrophic collapse in the social interrelated structure, infrastructure services, education and health care system. Destruction of schools and educational institutions have also led to a decline in education among many countries which is affected by war. If certain infrastructural elements are significantly damaged or destroyed, it can cause serious disruption to the economy. This results into a huge loss of certain transportation routes in a city which leads the economy to not function properly.
The Labour force of the nation also changes with the effects of war due to loss in economy. The labor force is affected in a multitude of ways most often due to the drastic loss of life, change in population, the labor force size shrinking due to the displacement of refugees and the destruction of infrastructure which in turn allows for a deterioration of productivity.
There was a shortage of labor force during the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War enabled women to enter in the fields of employment and they were looking for large number of much-needed jobs. Many women had occupied many important positions firstly”. This can also be seen in the Second Liberian Civil War, and in the Rwandan genocide. As a result, Women’s took over their husbands jobs due to the effects of the war, and received more economic equality
“International humanitarian law (IHL) is the legal framework. It aims to limit the effects of armed conflict”. These laws work to limit the effects of war and will protect the people who are not participated in such hostilities. Most wars have resulted in huge loss of life. Conflict characterizes a major obstacle for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly for the universal completion of primary education and without gender inequality in education. It is clear that armed conflict directly kills, injures, and harms more men than women in war.
During Napoleon’s retreat from Moscow, many French soldiers were died compared by the Russians. More soldiers were killed from 1500–1914. In addition, if it were not for the modern medical advances there would be thousands more dead from disease and infection.
In times when a country is in an economic crisis there is an increase in poverty which results in the decline of education. Over half of the world’s children that are out of school are forced to live in conflict-affected fragile states. As per the UNESCO report the people who were effected were based on gender, location, wealth, language”.
One predominantly damaging, effect of conflict on education is the proliferation of attacks on schools with children, teachers and school buildings become the targets of violence. During conflicts between nation’s teachers and students oftenly suffer from death or displacement. This prevents the opening of schools and increases teachers absenteeism. In Iraq, boys were left homes and schools to work for their families, and therefore the education gap between men and women decrease.
Effects of World War
Conflict negatively impacts women and men, which often results in gender-specific difficulties that are not recognized or addressed by mainstream communities across the globe (Baden and Goetz, 1997). War impacts women differently as they are more likely to die from indirect causes as opposed to direct causes.
In many countries females are not looked upon as being equal to males. Males are seen as the dominant gender and therefore women are to be obedient to them. Rape can be seen by a universal male tendency towards indiscriminate violence against women, a continuous process of intimidation by which all men keep all women in a large fear”. Plumper found that most women live longer when they are in peacetime, when compared to a state that is in armed conflict the gender gap of life expectancy drastically decreases in the male to female ratio.
The indirect effects of militarized conflicts’ affect access to food, hygiene, health services, and clean water. Women suffer more harshly from the damage to the health as well as overall well being, other infrastructure damages, and the wider economic damage as well as from dislocation during and post-conflict. During conflicts, women are separated from their husbands or lose them in such war.
There are many effects of war on women – emotionally, socially and physically. It’s main effect can be the disruption of the family unit due to males entering the military during a war. This military enrollment has both an emotional and social effect on the women left behind. Because of that enrollment, women can be forced into roles that they are not used to – entering the workforce, providing for their families, and taking on other traditional male roles.
Rape of women and girls was mentioned above and can have both physical and emotional effects. Unfortunately there has been lack of accurate data on the number of rape victims. There are a few reasons for this – women are afraid to report the rape due to fear of retaliation or how they may be viewed by society, while others may falsely report rape for increases in government support and services.
Lastly, women might not report rape because of the lack of prosecution and actual convictions of the attackers. Prosecution can become difficult due to the lack of evidence and the political justice system itself. The film “The Prosecutors” highlighted how hard it is to prosecute wartime criminals and the danger that the victims and the prosecutors are in when facing them. The film focuses on three countries – The Democratic Republic of Congo, Columbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the sexual warcrimes committed, and how difficult the prosecution process is in those countries
Long term effects
During the 30 years of war, the population of the Germany was reduced by about 30%. However, The Swedish armies had destroyed up to 2,000 castles, 18,000 villages and 1,500 towns in Germany.
In the II World War, An estimate suggests that some 60 million people died in the war which includes about 20 million soldiers and 40 million civilians. The Soviet Union had lost more than 27 million soldiers during conflicts between nations. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white American males aged 13 to 50 died in the American Civil War. Almost 60 million European soldiers who were mobilized in World War I, 8 million were killed, 7 million were disabled, and about 15 million were seriously injured.
then war strikes it ends up affecting government structures along with the people in power of the government. In the Second Liberian Civil War, Charles Taylor and with the help of the United Nations deployed a new democratic form of government which stands for equal rights with a women president in Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. This change in government was also apparent in Rwanda in 1993 when the genocide finally stopped. The c ntry had shifted from dictatorship to pure democracy and gave both men and women the right to vote. The country also installed a quota system where a certain number of government seats must belong to women. The country’s quota was about 30% of seats, Significantly women now holds 55% of seats from their own merit. Such changes in government also changes the country behaviour economically.
However, some scholars argued that war can also have a positive effect on political development.